The interleukin family of cytokines is one of the largest and most studied of all the growth factors. Their roles in disease, the immune system, and immune deficiency have made them superstars of cancer research and AIDS/HIV research, not to mention as possible, critical links in such diverse problems such as heart disease, neurological disorders like Alzheimer’s, arthritis and even Crohn’s disease. Interleukins are involved in processes of cell activation, cell differentiation, proliferation, and cell-to-cell interactions. The expression of interleukins is usually strictly regulated, i.e., the factors are often not secreted constitutively. They are most often synthesized after cell activation as a consequence of a physiological or non-physiological stimulus. There are also some interleukins which are autoregulatory and regulate their own synthesis or the expression of their own receptors.

Gold Bio is excited to now offer three interleukins (IL2, IL3 and IL4), recombinant from both human and murine sequence for your research needs! IL2 was the first of the interleukin family to be identified and characterized in the early 1980’s, though the existence of this family of growth factors was known for a few decades before that. IL2 is necessary for the growth, proliferation, and differentiation of T cells to become ‘effector’ T cells. IL2 has been shown to be similar to IL15, but IL2 is instrumental in adaptive immunity and the development of the immunological memory, playing an important role in both regulatory T cells (Treg) development and function, whereas IL15 is more important in maintaining a highly specific T cell response.

IL3 is a popular cytokine in use for a variety of cell cultures (i.e. mast cells or basophils) providing the cytokinetic connection between the immune and hematopoietic systems. IL3 is capable of inducing the growth and differentiation of multi-potential hematopoietic stem cells, neutrophils, eosinophils, megakaryocytes, macrophages, lymphoid and erythroid cells. Haig, et al. recently showed a synergistic affect between IL3 and another growth factor, KITLG (sometimes called SCF or Stem Cell Factor), on both bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMC) and serosal/connective-tissue mast cells (CTMC).

IL4 is most closely associated with IL13 and induces native T helper (Th0) cells to become Th2 cells (which then produce more IL4). They are often produced during allergic responses and promote allergic inflammation by activation signal tranducers. IL4 actions are often “neutralized” by Inferon-gamma (IFN-ɣ), which is made by the Th1 cells. Gilbert, et al., showed that IL4 (as well as IL1) are involved in the response of annulus fibrosus (AF) cells derived from nondegenerative tissue to cyclic tensile strain.

If you have any questions about interleukins or any of our other available growth factors, you can contact us at: [email protected]!

Mahmud, Shawn A., Luke S. Manlove, and Michael A. Farrar. “Interleukin-2 and STAT5 in regulatory T cell development and function.” JAK-STAT 2.1 (2013): 0-1.

Haig, David M., et al. “Effects of stem cell factor (kit-ligand) and interleukin-3 on the growth and serine proteinase expression of rat bone-marrow-derived or serosal mast cells.” Blood 83.1 (1994): 72-83.

Reddy, E. Premkumar, et al. “IL-3 signaling and the role of Src kinases, JAKs and STATs: a covert liaison unveiled.” Oncogene 19.21 (2000): 2532-2547.

Gilbert, Hamish TJ, et al. “The involvement of interleukin-1 and interleukin-4 in the response of human annulus fibrosus cells to cyclic tensile strain: an altered mechanotransduction pathway with degeneration.” Arthritis research & therapy 13.1 (2011): R8.

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