Caffeic acid phenethyl ester
Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester (CAPE) or the ester of caffeic acid and phenethyl alcohol is a bioactive component of honeybee hive propolis extract, which has anti-inflammatory, antitumor, antiviral, antibacterial, antifungal and immunostimulatory activities. It inhibits the activation of nuclear transcription factor NF-κB and suppresses p70S6K and Akt-driven signaling pathways. Moreover, through activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1alpha, CAPE inhibits PDGF-induced proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells.
Chlorogenic acid (CGA), the conjugate acid of chlorogenate, is the ester of trans-caffeic acid and (-)-quinic acid. CGA is produced by formal condensation of the carboxy group of trans-caffeic acid with the 3-hydroxy group of quinic acid. It is the predominant class of phenolic acids found in coffee and coffee beans, known as an intermediate metabolite in the biosynthesis of lignin. CGA exhibits many biological properties including antibacterial, antioxidant, and anticarcinogenic activities. Most importantly, CGA exerts an important role as an antidiabetic agent through regulation of the whole body and tissue-specific glucose metabolism.